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About Doomination

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    Ohio, USA
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  1. You got so much to do and only So many hours in a day But you know that when the truth is told That you can get what you want Or you can just get old
  2. consider an integral as an infinite sum. How would you calculate the volume of a single layer? Then, the total volume is just the sum of all the layers. Write that out as a sum and you'll see the form of the integral.
  3. I am in my final year of B.Tech Chemical Engineering  and i am preparing to pursue my higher studies in abroad. Can you people  suggest me  the best country to pursue MS chemical engineering and let me know about the job prospects in various countries.   

    1. Doomination


      i can't say anything about anywhere but the US, where as far as i know the job market is okay.

    2. sai abhishek

      sai abhishek

      But will there be any effect of Trump after I complete my higher studies in the US because people are saying there will be a lot of impact on core related jobs.. 

    3. sai abhishek

      sai abhishek

      Are the jobs for chemical engineers fine over there like in pharma industries or petroleum industries.

  4. Science put out a decent article on this: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/01/diamond-vise-turns-hydrogen-metal-potentially-ending-80-year-quest Kisai, this article claims metallic H might be metastable at near ambient conditions.
  5. everything in this thread would be taught in a first year (uni) chemistry sequence. Khan academy probably has some good videos on the topic. my background is a BS in chemical engineering, MS in chemical engineering; working towards a PhD in chemical engineering.
  6. indeed though that is harder for me to answer :) when i wrote [Cu]/[Cu2+] i meant the concentration ratio of the two species. things change if you apply a potential. For this you can look at what's called a Pourbaix diagram, essentially a phase diagram but instead of temperature and pressure (or mole fraction), you have potential and pH. Not sure if you can see this without logging in. If you can't i'll upload a couple pictures. https://materialsproject.org/#apps/pourbaixdiagram/{"chemsys"%3A["Cu"]} interestingly from this, it looks like if you remove copper (lower the concentration), the copper that remains will prefer to be oxidized in the Cu2+ form at 0V.
  7. the output (grade) is some convolution of many variables, one of which is ability.
  8. Cu has some options. It could oxidize to form CuO (insoluble in water and only stable at non-ambient conditions according to a phase diagram i googled), or to form Cu2O (insoluble in water but soluble in acid - which is irrelevant since we're at near neutral pH). Alternately, you could imagine instead an electrochemical oxidation to Cu2+ ions. From the link I posted, you can see that at equilibrium, the equilibrium constant for the electrochemical half reaction (Cu2+ + 2 electrons -> Cu) varies exponentially with the standard potential ( +0.34V vs SHE according to google). However, I was pretty careless here. The equilibrium constant is for the overall redox reaction, not the half reaction (that's how I arrived at Cu/Cu2+ = 5). In this case, the other half reaction would be H2O going to O2 gas and H+ ions (water splitting). Hence the overall standard cell potential is 0.34 - 1.23 = -0.89 V. And the overall redox reaction: 2H2O + 2Cu2+ → O2 + 2Cu + 4H+ -> K = [Cu]^2[H+]^4[O2]/[Cu2+]^2 ~ 8.17E-31 here [X] = molar concentration of species X, and pO2 refers to the partial pressure of O2. You say pH ~ 7 -> [H+] ~ 10^-7, and the concentration of O2 in fully saturated water is about 4E-3 M. Now solving for [Cu]/[Cu2+] gives me about 1.4. Sorry about that.
  9. answering the question you asked "does Cu oxidize rapidly" at the stated conditions would be hard to answer. thermodynamically, the answer to your question is here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nernst_equation#Relation_to_equilibrium back of the envelope calculations suggests you can expect about a 5/1 ratio of Cu/Cu2+ at moderate pHs like you have.
  10. you don't have to be very smart to get a PhD
  11. if i recall correctly, you can have your loans discharged (forgiven) if the school they were used to pay for closes down
  12. I graduated with about 25k USD in debt for a BS in chemical engineering about a year ago. It's down to about 20k USD now, all subsidized loans (0% interest until I graduate). I'll have a PhD in about four years, which I'm getting paid for. Thanks taxpayers!
  13. It really depends on what kind of life he wants to lead, which isn't something one can reasonably answer at 14-15 years old. Engineering, accounting, pharmacy all have strong job prospects, and can allow you to work no more than 45 hours per week, though aren't exactly the most interesting jobs. It will involve a lot of paperwork. I'm not sure what career options there are with a degree in economics beyond working in finance. Law and medicine allow you to make the most money (at least in the US), but also require far more hours worked. It all depends .. I'm not entirely sure your specific career choice makes much of a difference. Someone who does well in law would also do well in medicine if they have discipline. It's a matter of lifestyle choice. eg I chose chemical engineering, and here I am in grad school working more hours than I probably should.
  14. pay off high interest debts first, then invest the rest into a mutual fund
  15. have corrected the post, thanks