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The title varies by country and even region. And there's different names for different levels. Here in the US, we're called Medical Laboratory Scientists (new name) and Clinical Laboratory Scientists (old west-coast name) and Medical Technologists (old east-coast name).
For "scientist/technologist" level, you need a minimum of a BS in bio plus a clinical year before taking your boards. For "technician" level you need just the associates degree. If your undergraduate is in the wrong discipline (they're strict), you'll need a masters degree in the field for "scientist" level.